Whole picture

This is a rough outline of a Lisp system, it must be read from bottom to top to emphasize bottom-up approach to programming as an opposite to popular but broken top-down.

Each layer of special forms and procedures (which in some cases define a DSL) act as a basic building blocs for the layer above it. At the higher-levels everything is mixed (messed?) up.

Hierarchy of Special Forms and Primitive Procedures (layers of DSLs):

  • CLOS DSL (macros, procedures):
    • define-class define-method, etc.
  • Structures DSL (macros, procedures):
    • define-structure, etc.

Having a Lisp system we could use meta-programming to extend it with so-called "high-level" features, such as Object System.

  • Looping forms DSLs (macros):
    • do loop for, etc.
  • High-order list procedures:
    • filter map for-each foldr foldl, etc.
  • Logic procedures:
    • and or not

With constrol structures, macros and environment we could define generic high-order procedures for aggregates, etc.

  • Environment (special forms):
    • define set!
  • Control structures (special forms):
    • begin let cond
  • Macro DSL (special forms):
    • quasi-quote unquote unquote-splicing

Since we have Lists (which are nested Pairs) we could define an environment (which is a, logically a set of nested associative lists) and additional control structures.

  • List DSL (procedures):
    • '() null? list append, etc.
  • Pair DSL (procedures):
    • cons car cdr pair?
  • Fundamental Special Forms:
    • lambda #t #f if quote

Some definitions:

  • Special form is a Lisp expression (parenthesized list notation) which has its own evaluation rule, explicitly embedded into the 'eval procedure.
  • Special forms are evaluated at run-time as special cases within the eval procedure.
  • Special forms might be syntactically different from the standard procedure application form - a procedure (car) followed by a parameter list (cdr) in parenthesis.
  • lambda is the most fundamental special form, it creates a new procedure.
  • if is a special form which evaluates only one of its "branch" expression, depending on the result of evaluation of given "test" expression.
  • quote is a special form which allows a Lisp expression to be a part of another Lisp expression, without being evaluated.

  • Macros are special forms which are expanded (evaluated) by the read procedure, when it reads expressions from its standard input and transforms them into actual Lisp forms (lists).
  • Macros perform syntactic transformations of Lisp forms (lists), keeping its semantics constant.
  • Macros are lambda expressions which are annotated with the 'macro type-tag. Their domain and range are syntactically correct Lisp forms.


  • simplify! generalize!
  • all you need is lambda (if and quote)
  • everything is a symbol (pointer)
  • everything is made out of conses (except for special cases)
  • code is data!
  • there are no vars, just values (bound to symbols)
  • there are no objects, just values
  • values, not variables, has types attached to them as tags.
  • type-tags, keywords are just symbols
  • macros are just lambdas tagged (annotated) with the 'macro tag (to be evaluated (expanded) by read instead of eval.
  • quoting expressions are special forms, whose domain is Lisp forms (Lists)
  • quoting is a way to turn off evaluation a Lisp form inside of another form
  • unquoting is a way to evaluate only selected parts of nested forms
  • Lisp is a meta-language for itself
  • Lisp is just layers of DSLs embedded in Lisp (recursive definition)
  • high-order procedures are the way to implement primitive DSLs
  • macros are the way to define new control structures for advanced DSLs
  • cons car cdr pair? is the most fundamental, primitive DSL
  • wishful thinking is the way to designing good DSLs

Let's talk about the IF special form.

Last modified 6 years ago Last modified on Dec 29, 2013, 12:27:50 PM
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